This issue is reflected in the answer to the previous question, in Articles 177, 178 and 183 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Armenia.
[Answer 22: According to the Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Armenia, Article 6, clause 30, the body conducting criminal proceedings is the court; and during the pre-trial proceedings, the bodies for inquest, the investigator, the prosecutor. The criminal case shall be initiated pursuant to the following Articles: Article 175. The Liability of Initiating Criminal Case The prosecutor, the investigator, the investigation body shall be liable to, within their competences, initiate criminal case, where there are reasons and grounds for the initiation of criminal case envisaged in this Code. Article 176. The Reasons for Initiation of Criminal Case 1. The reasons for initiation of a criminal case are: 1) Statements about crimes by physical and legal entities addressed to the investigation body, investigator, prosecutor; 2) Mass media reports about crimes; 3) The disclosure of information about crime, material traces and consequences of crime by the investigation body, the investigator, the prosecutor, the court and the judge in their line of duty. Article 177. The Statements of Physical Entities about Crimes 1. The statements of physical entities about crimes can be in written or verbal form. 2. The verbal statement made about a crime during investigation or court trial is registered in the protocol of the investigation or the court session, respectively. In other cases separate protocols are written. The protocol must indicate the surname and the first name of the applicant, date of birth, home and work address, the relation to the crime and the source of information, as well as data about identity documents submitted by him. If the applicant has not submitted identity documents, other measures must be taken to verify the information about the identity of the person. 3. If the applicant is 16 years old, he is warned about the liability for fraudulent misrepresentation which is certified by the signature of the latter. 4. The statement in the protocol is narrated in the first person. 5. The protocol is signed by the applicant and the recipient official. 6. The rules specified in clauses 1, 2, 4 and 5 of this Article are also extended to the statement made by the applicant about crime committed, in case of surrender. 7. A letter, a statement or other anonymous message about crime, unsigned or with false signature or written on behalf of fictitious person, cannot serve as reason for initiation of a criminal case. Article 178. Statements by Legal Entities A statement by a legal entity must be in the form of an official letter, or ratified telegram, telephone or radio message, e-mail, or other accepted form of communication. Enclosed to the message can be documents confirming the crime. Article 179. Mass Media Reports 1. Reports on committed or impending crimes, in press, on the radio, on TV, as well as reports forwarded to mass media and unpublicized, are considered mass media reports. 2. Mass media which publicized reports about crimes or sent to the relevant instances, as well as the authors of these reports must, at the request of the investigating body, investigator and prosecutor, submit the materials under their possession confirming the report about the crime. Article 180. The Examination Procedure of Reports about Crimes 1. Reports about crimes must be considered and resolved expeditiously, and when necessary to check the legitimacy of the reason for the initiation of criminal case and the sufficiency of the grounds, no less than in 10 days after their receipt. 2. Within this period additional documents, explanations and other materials can be requested, as well as the examination of the locus criminis and expert examination. Article 181. Decisions Made as a Result of Examination of Statements about Crimes In each case of the receipt of information about a crime, one of the following decisions is made: - on initiation of a criminal case; - on the dismissal of initiation of a criminal case; - on the transfer of the statement by subordination. Article 182. Procedure of Initiation of a Criminal Case 1. In the event of availability of reasons and grounds for initiation of a criminal case, the prosecutor, the investigator, and the investigating body make a decision on initiation of a criminal case. 2. The decision must indicate the reason and grounds for the case, the Article of the Criminal Code by the elements of which the case is initiated, and the further progress of the case after initiation. 3. If at that moment the person injured by the crime is known, simultaneously with the initiation of the criminal case this person is recognized as the injured party, and if a civil claim has been submitted along with the statement about crime, that person is recognized as civil claimant, by the same decision. 4. The copy of the decision to initiate criminal case shall be sent to the physical or the legal entity which reported about the crime. 5. Along with the initiation of criminal case, measures must be taken to prevent the crime, as well as to keep and preserve the traces of the crime, objects and documents, which can be significant for the case. Article 183. Initiation of a Criminal Case Based on the Complaint of the Injured Person Based on circumstances envisaged in Article 109, part 2; Article 110, part 1; Article 131, part 1; Article 132, part 1, 2 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Armenia, the case is initiated only based on the complaints of the injured, and in case of his reconciliation with the suspect or the accused, the case is subject to termination. Reconciliation is allowed before the court retreats to the conference room to adopt a verdict.]