As far as individual intellectual rights are concerned, in principle, the following civil judicial procedures and remedies are available: (a)According to the special protection of copyrights and rights of performing artists, as stipulated in the Copyright Act No. 35/1965 in conjunction with Section 39, paragraph 1 of this Act, the author whose right was infringed may demand, in particular, that the infringement of his/her right is prohibited, the consequences of such infringement or abuse are removed and the author receives the appropriate recovery. If, as a result of such an infringement, serious prejudice to intangible property has been caused, the author shall be entitled to receive a monetary satisfaction provided granting of another form of recovery has turned out to be inadequate. The amount of such monetary recovery shall be determined by the court which shall take into consideration the extent of the prejudice sustained and also the circumstances under which the infringement of right occurred. If the author suffered an injury through infringement of his/her right, the author has the right to receive compensation in compliance with the Civil Code. The winner of the dispute shall have the right to have the expenses of the court proceedings compensated, including the respective attorney's fees. As for civil and judicial procedures, the court may prohibit the distribution of tangible copies of works which were wrongfully used. As a result of criminal or administrative procedure the court may order the unauthorized user to destroy the confiscated or forfeited copies at his own expense. (b)The special protection of intellectual rights in compliance with Section 15 of the Act on Trademarks No. 137/1995, Section 5 of the Act on the Protection of Appellation of Origin of Products No. 159/1973, Section 75 of the Act on Patents, Inventions and Rationalization Proposals No. 527/1990 also in conjunction with Section 18, paragraph 2 of Act No. 529/1991 on the Protection of Topographies of Semiconductor Products and Section 21, paragraph 2 of the Act on Utility Models No. 478/1992, and Section 26 of Act No. 132/1989 on New Plant and Animal Variety Protection. According to the Act on Trademarks, the owner of a trademark may lodge an application with the respective court to prevent anyone from using his/her trademark or any similar sign the use of which could result in a likelihood of confusion, and to withdraw from the market the objects whose marking infringes this right. The owner of a trademark may ask the customs authorities not to release the products which involve infringement of his/her rights resulting from the Act on Trademarks, into free domestic circulation. If the owner has suffered any injury due to an infringement of the trademark rights, the owner shall be entitled to compensation. In the case of a non-material damage, the injured party shall have the right to receive the appropriate remedy which may be a monetary compensation. According to the Act on the Protection of Appellation of Origin of Products, the registered user of the appellation of origin may turn to the appropriate institution (court) to prohibit infringement of his/her rights and eliminate the irregular situation. According to the Act on Invention, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals, the party whose rights, which are protected by this Act, were wrongfully infringed may demand, in particular, the prohibition of infringement of the right and to have the resulting consequences of such infringement removed. If damage has been incurred, the injured party shall have the right to be compensated. However, only actual damage and actual lost profits can be compensated. If (non-material) prejudice has been incurred, the injured party shall be entitled to the appropriate recovery (i.e. not just to an apology, but also to a monetary compensation too). Disputes related to inventions, industrial designs and rationalization proposals are settled by courts. See reply to question 1. According to the Act on New Plant and Animal Variety Protection, the owner of cultivation certificate whose rights, which are protected by this Act, were infringed may demand, in particular, the prohibition of infringement of his/her right and to have the resulting consequences of such infringement removed. If a damage has been incurred, the injured party shall have the right to be compensated. If a (non-material) prejudice has been incurred, the injured party shall be entitled to the appropriate recovery (i.e. also to a monetary compensation). (c)The special protection against unfair competition as stipulated in Sections 53 - 55 incl. of the Commercial Code applies to all cases other than those described above. (d)There is general protection through liability for damage as stipulated in Section 415 and subsequent provisions of the Civil Code, or Section 757 of the Commercial Code in conjunction with Section 373 and subsequent provisions of the Commercial Code in case of commercial contractual relations. (e)There is general protection consisting of returning what has been acquired through unjust enrichment under paragraph 451 and subsequent provision of the Commercial Code. Concurrent application of several possible means of protection which are based on and result from the individual factual circumstances under which the infringement of a right(-s) has (have) occurred, is not excluded. Therefore, individual claims may be lodged separately, or collectively, for the purpose of protecting the respective right in a more efficient manner. The protection is carried out through actions whose purpose is to determine the existence or non existence of certain rights, and through specific performance actions which are based on and result from law, legal relationship or violation of law. As for the special means of the protection of rights, there are actions whose purpose is to impose obligations concerning: - prohibition of rights; - elimination of consequences of rights infringement; - provision of the appropriate satisfaction; and -other forms of protection of infringed law (such as destruction of wrongfully produced or imported media which contain the work in question).