2 In French, the word "titulaire" (owner) of a right is used in preference to "détenteur" (holder) as used in the TRIPS Agreement. The footnote to Article 42 of the TRIPS Agreement states that "For the purpose of this Part, the term‘right holder’ includes federations and associations having legal standing to assert such rights."
3 Cf. Article 491 of the NCPC: "The judge sitting in chambers may pronounce the imposition of fines. He may fix the amount thereof ... ".
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