510. Thank you for the opportunity to provide an update of IP-related issues as they have come up in the most recent trade policy reviews. You recall that this has been a regular update in light of the increasing attention paid to IP related issues in those reviews. Since the Council's meeting in June, the trade policy reviews of Nigeria, the European Union, Brazil, Jamaica, Paraguay and Iceland have taken place. I am pleased to report that Members continue to substantially contribute to the discussions on TRIPS-related issues during those reviews. As Members engaged in a constructive dialogue on a wide range of trade-related IP issues, they covered in particular copyright and related rights, the determination of royalty rates, trademark protection, the protection of well-known and service marks, certification marks, geographical indications, patents, compulsory licences, data exclusivity, linkage to the regulatory regime, use and validity of supplementary protection certificates, utility models, protection of undisclosed information in trade secrets, enforcement measures on-line and at the border, application of enforcement measures to goods in transit, appeal mechanisms, national IP strategies, procedural innovations and the granting of IP rights, implications of judicial rulings, and the ratification of WIPO treaties. In some discussions, the status of notifications to this Council was also mentioned.