Report by Developed Country Members on the implementation of TRIPS Art. 66.2 (re. Technology Transfer to LDCs) - View details of the document




1.  The Government of Japan has been conducting development cooperation activities in many fields. One of the most important objectives of these cooperation activities is to promote and encourage the transfer of technology.


2.  Japan understands that incentives for technology transfer should be interpreted to include a variety of measures such as financial support and business environment support, and that supporting the business environment by strengthening intellectual property protection is one of several effective measures to promote technology transfer by private sectors. Based on this understanding, Japan has provided many incentive measures.


3.  With regard to the incentives provided by Japan to enterprises and institutions in Japan, the Government of Japan would like to report on the following activities. The Government of Japan believes that the following activities contribute to raising levels of technological infrastructure in least developed countries (LDCs), which will bring about further technology transfer.




2.1  JICA


4.  Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) provides technical cooperation through ODA, through which knowledge and technologies are transferred. The scale of operations for technical cooperation through JICA amounts to approximately JPY 175.2 billion for FY2022. Some examples of technical cooperation for LDC Members are listed in the Annex.


5.  Under the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) programme, JICA collaborates with Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), as the funding agencies for science and technology, to promote international joint research projects with developing countries, aimed at resolving global issues. JST/AMED support Japanese research institutions/researchers for the project activities in Japan. JICA supports project implementation in developing countries, such as dispatching Japanese experts (researchers), providing equipment and training of personnel, and other supports related to projects in developing countries in frameworks of ODA technical cooperation. SATREPS projects implemented with LDC Members are listed in the Annex.


6.  In 2013, JICA launched a new public-private partnership programme, 'Collaboration Programme with the Private Sector for Disseminating Japanese Technology', which aims to promote understanding of Japanese enterprises' technology, knowledge and system and to explore the possibility of using them for the development of developing countries. Some examples of projects implemented under this programme are listed in the Annex. The programme title was revised into 'SDGs Business Verification Survey with the Private Sector'.


2.2  AOTS


7.  The Association for Overseas Technical Cooperation and Sustainable Partnerships (AOTS) is an organization for human resources development in developing countries to promote technical cooperation through training, expert dispatch and other programmes.


2.2.1  Technical Training


8.  Training is conducted for engineers and managers invited to Japan from developing countries as trainees. Its programmes include practical trainings implemented by private companies, which allows trainees to acquire skills and techniques in specific fields. In 2022, AOTS provided technical training courses for engineers and managers of Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Nepal.


2.2.2  Management Training


9.  Training programmes in Japan or the online seminars connected by teleconference system with Japan are conducted for the engineers along with middle and top managers etc. from developing countries to enhance their business or factory management skills and techniques through understanding management concepts and observing actual examples of their usage. In 2022, AOTS provided management training courses for the engineers and managers of Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia.


2.2.3  Expert Dispatch Programme


10.  AOTS experts provide technical guidance and advice to local companies and contribute to improvements in areas such as manufacturing technologies and business management skills. In 2022, technical guidance on various issues was offered to Bangladesh and Myanmar.


2.3  JETRO


2.3.1  Dispatching Experts to Improve the Business Environment of Developing Countries in order to Promote Trade and Investment


11.  Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) is engaged in dispatching experts to assist developing countries in the establishment of various rules and institutions necessary to create a business environment conducive to trade and investment. More specifically, in response to requests of private sectors and other entities from developing countries, experts were dispatched in respective industry fields such as automotive parts and molds & dies.


2.3.2  Supporting Developing Countries to Expand Their Exports Industries (OVOP)


12.  JETRO helps developing countries to expand their exports to Japan and achieve self-sustainable economic growth, by promoting products from emerging countries. Some projects are implemented as part of 'One Village One Product (OVOP)' campaign, the initiative for supporting and promoting local economies in developing countries. The core activities of the campaign are to exhibit and sell craftworks, accessories, processed foods and other such products at 'OVOP Market'. These are sourced from developing countries in Asia, Africa, Central America and the Pacific and are sold at Narita and Kansai International Airports. This promotion will be carried out to introduce the merits of these products to Japanese customers and to expand sales in the Japanese market.




3.1  Climate Finance


13.  In 2015, Japan announced 'ACE: Actions for Cool Earth 2.0', which aims to encourage developing countries' participation in the Paris Agreement, and to contribute to significant reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by leading the world in further reinforcing development of innovative technologies. This strategy consists of two pillars: the implementation of climate-related assistance to developing countries totalling approximately JPY 1.3 trillion from public and private sources in 2020; and innovation enhancement, a key to taking action against climate change while maintaining economic growth.


14.  In June 2021 at the G7 Cornwall Summit, Japan announced that Japan would provide climate finance, both public and private, totalling JPY 6.5 trillion over the next 5 years, from 2021 to 2025. On top of that, Japan announced its additional contribution in November 2021 at COP26 to provide up to USD 10 billion from both public and private from 2021 to 2025. For adaptation to climate change, Japan announced in November 2021 at COP26 to double its assistance for adaptation totalling approximately JPY 1.6 trillion from both public and private sectors from 2021 to 2025. These commitments stand out as a sizeable amount among other developed countries. Under these commitments, Japan will continue to lead the global effort to tackle climate change.


3.2  JCM


15.  Japan established and has been implementing the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) in order both to quantitatively evaluate contributions of Japan to GHG emission reductions or removals which are achieved through the diffusion of leading decarbonizing technologies, products, systems, services, and infrastructure among others as well as implementation of mitigation actions particularly in developing countries, and to use them to achieve Japan's nationally determined contribution and for other purposes. As of August 2023, Japan has signed this partnership with 27 countries. Japan is promoting the formulation of JCM projects through various supporting schemes, and further accelerating the transfer of leading decarbonizing technologies.


3.3  Other Initiatives relating to Climate Change


16.  In addition to the aforementioned JCM, Japan promotes technology transfer relating to climate change through active participation in multilateral initiatives under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), such as the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and Climate Technology Center and Network (CTCN) for which Japan has made a contribution of USD 12.7 million as of FY2020. In October 2021, Japan revised its 'Long-Term Strategy under the Paris Agreement' which shows the basic concept, visions, and measures for net-zero GHG emissions by 2050. The strategy includes 'Business-led Promotion of International Application, and International Cooperation' as one of pillars. Under this pillar, Japan will promote international application of the products and goods with high environmental performance with Japanese advanced technologies, and through further improvement of the environment, such as market creation, human resource development, and establishment of institutional platforms. At the same time, Japan will lead the discussion in international cooperation and multilateral and bilateral international negotiations by actively proposing rule-making and the formulation of standards and criteria.


17.  As part of the implementation of the strategy, at an ASEAN+3 Ministers on Energy Meeting in September 2019, Japan proposed inauguration of Cleaner Energy Future Initiative for ASEAN (CEFIA), under the framework of the ASEAN+3. CEFIA aims at developing an environment in which businesses are able to demonstrate leadership in disseminating decarbonizing technologies in and across ASEAN countries. CEFIA is expected to contribute to APAEC (ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation), implement CEFIA collaboration roadmap, and accelerate finance, primarily through the implementation of its Flagship Projects. The 5th CEFIA Government-Private Forum was held on August 2023.


18.  The former Prime Minister Suga announced that Japan would aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net-zero by 2050 and to realize a decarbonized society. On December 2020, Japan compiled 'Green Growth Strategy Through Achieving Carbon Neutrality in 2050' and created a fund of JPY 2 trillion for providing continuing assistance to companies taking up the challenge of ambitious innovations throughout the next decade and set out a policy for the use of the tax system in addition. The strategy was updated in June 2021. The former Prime Minister Suga announced that Japan aims to reduce its GHG emissions by 46% in FY2030 from its FY2013 levels, setting an ambitious target which is aligned with the long‑term goal of achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Furthermore, Japan will continue strenuous efforts in its challenge to meet the lofty goal of cutting its emission by 50% (announced at the 45th meeting of the Global Warming Prevention Headquarters and Leaders Summit on Climate on 22 April 2021).




19.  Since providing good quality medicines forms the foundation of healthcare, it has become an important task to establish a system that can consistently ensure the availability of quality, safe and efficacious medicines in developing countries.


20.  Furthermore, the spread of substandard and falsified (SF) medical products is a significant public health problem, as it not only threatens the health of individual users but also leads to waste of public resources and/or to the risk of spawning drug-resistant strains of bacteria. As such, strengthening measures to combat the distribution of SF medical products is also of great importance.


21.  From these perspectives, the Government of Japan, through JICA and Japan International Corporation of Welfare Services (JICWELS), conducts training programmes in order to develop and reinforce specialist personnel engaged in pharmaceutical regulatory services.


22.  Additionally, the Government of Japan in cooperation with the Japanese Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA) contributes to improvement of pharmaceutical regulations through participation in international conferences, and endeavours to disseminate the outcomes to developing countries in the Asian region.




23.  In FY2022, the following 12 group training courses for government officials were conducted by the Japan Patent Office (JPO), in cooperation with the Asian Pacific Industrial Property Center (APIC) of the Japan Institute for Promoting Invention and Innovation (JIPII). 48 participants from LDCs in total completed training.


24.  In FY2022, the JPO also conducted 4 group training courses for the private sector, and 12 participants from LDCs completed training.


25.  In addition, the Government of Japan has been providing voluntary contributions to WIPO, which is a UN organization responsible for the protection of intellectual property throughout the world and the administration of various multilateral treaties, such as the creation of IPR rules, etc. The 'WIPO Funds-in-Trust/Japan' (FIT/JP) was established with these voluntary funds and is used to support WIPO members in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). In addition, in FY2008, the FIT/JP for Africa and LDCs was founded in order to promote self-sustained economic development utilizing IP in the region. Furthermore, since April 2019, Japan has renewed FIT/JP as the Global Funds, which are used without limiting areas of support. Through these voluntary funds, various projects are implemented every year, such as accepting trainees and IPR research fellows, holding symposiums, sending JPO officials, and supporting the automation and modernization of IP offices. In FY2022, as many as 18 programmes were organized with the Funds-in-Trust Japan Industrial Property Global (FIT Japan IP Global), which had more than 1,090 participants including those from LDCs.


26.  Moreover, JICA provides various IP training programmes by inviting government officials from various countries to Japan. Under such programmes, participants are expected to acquire general and basic knowledge through lectures, discussion, site observation etc. and to share the knowledge among participants from various countries. Courses on intellectual property rights have been held since 2000. The courses had many participants from LDCs including Myanmar, Cambodia, The Gambia, Uganda and Tanzania.



List of programmes/projects

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# Name of programme or project Beneficiary Members(s) Category of technology  
1 The Project for Capacity Building of Nursing Services Phase 2
Health-related technology
2 The Bridge Maintenance Capacity Building Project in Zambia, Phase II
3 Project on Human Resources Development in Health Phase 3
Democratic Republic of the Congo
4 The Project for Visualization of impact of chronic/latent chemical hazard and Geo-Ecological Remediation in Zambia
Health-related technology; Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology
5 The Project for Developing Counter Measures Against Striga to Conquer Poverty and Improve Food Security
Food and agriculture
6 The Project for Breakthrough in Nutrient Use Efficiency for Rice by Genetic Improvement and Fertility Sensing Techniques in Africa
7 The Project for Development and Operation Model of Plant-derived Soil Additives for Road Disaster Reduction on Problematic Soil
8 The Project for Epidemiology of zoonotic virus infections in Africa
Democratic Republic of the Congo; Zambia
Health-related technology
9 The Project for Advanced and Sustainable Methods on Water Utilization Associated with Greening Potential Evaluation
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology
10 The Project for Development of Climate Change Resilient Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Wheat Production in the Dry and Heat Prone Agro-ecologies of Sudan and Sub-Saharan Africa
Food and agriculture
11 The Project for Development and Dissemination of Innovative Oil-Extracting Technology from Crop Process Residue for Rural Electrification and Value Addition of By-products
Biotechnology and biodiversity; Food and agriculture
12 The Project for Establishment of a Sustainable Community Development Model based on Integrated Natural Resource Management Systems in Lake Malawi National Park
Biotechnology and biodiversity; Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology; Food and agriculture
13 Development of Breeding and Water Management Technologies for Safe and Nutritious Rice Production (SATREPS)
14 The project for institutional capacity building for eliminating Helicobacter pylori related death (SATREPS)
15 The Project for Establishment of Risk Management Platform for Air Pollution in Cambodia (SATREPS)
16 Technical Training Programme
Bangladesh; Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal
Health-related technology; Information and communications technology; Other
17 The Programme on Corporate Management
Angola; Bangladesh; Benin; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Congo; Djibouti; Guinea; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Liberia; Malawi; Myanmar; Nepal; Niger; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia
Health-related technology; Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology; Information and communications technology; Other
18 The Training Programme for Kaizen
Bangladesh; The Gambia; Guinea-Bissau; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Tanzania
19 Experts Dispatch Programme
Bangladesh; Myanmar
20 JPO/IPR Training Course on Trademark Examination under the Madrid System
Bangladesh; Chile; Mauritius; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Qatar; Sierra Leone; Sri Lanka
21 JPO/IPR Training Course on Academia-Industry Collaboration and Technology Transfer
Brazil; Chile; Ghana; Malawi; Malaysia; Mexico; Morocco; Nigeria; Philippines; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; Zambia
22 JPO/IPR Training Course on Patent Examination (Basic Programme)
Bangladesh; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Djibouti; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Pakistan; Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; South Africa; Vanuatu
23 JPO/IPR Training Course on Patent Examination Management for Managers
Brazil; Cambodia; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
24 JPO/IPR Training Course for Practitioners Specializing in Trademarks
Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mexico; Thailand
25 JPO/IPR Training Course on Patent Examination for Middle Eastern and African Countries
Angola; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Egypt; Eswatini; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; South Africa; Tunisia
26 JPO/IPR Training Course on Information Technology
Bangladesh; Cambodia; Egypt; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mexico; Pakistan; Philippines
Information and communications technology
27 JPO/IPR Training Course on General IP Office Management
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Colombia; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Malaysia; Philippines; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; South Africa
28 JPO/IPR Training Course on Anti-Counterfeiting Measures for Practitioners
Bangladesh; Chile; India; Indonesia; Kenya; Malaysia; Philippines; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Uganda; Viet Nam
29 JPO/IPR Training Course for Practitioners Specializing in Patents
Brazil; Cambodia; India; Malaysia; Mexico; Morocco; Philippines; Thailand
30 JPO/IPR Operational Patent Examination Training Program (OPET)
Bangladesh; Brazil; Egypt; Indonesia; Kenya; Malaysia; Mexico; Philippines; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Thailand; Viet Nam
31 JPO/IPR Training Course for IP Trainers
Bangladesh; Brazil; Cambodia; Egypt; India; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mexico; Philippines; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Thailand; Viet Nam
32 JPO/IPR Training Course on Trial and Appeal System
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
33 JPO/IPR Training Course on Substantive Examination of Trademarks
Bangladesh; Brazil; Cambodia; Indonesia; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Peru; Philippines; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Thailand; Viet Nam
34 JPO/IPR Training Course on Design Substantive Examination and Accession to the Hague Agreement
Bangladesh; Brazil; India; Indonesia; Kazakhstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mexico; Peru; Philippines; Thailand; Viet Nam
35 JPO/IPR Training Course on Patent Examination in Specific Technical Fields
Angola; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Kazakhstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Mexico; Morocco; Pakistan; Philippines; Qatar
36 Policy Dialogue on the Role of IP for Economic, Social and Cultural Development: Innovation, IP and Value Addition for Business Competitiveness in Africa - Regional Youth Entrepreneurship Forum on the "Critical Role of Intellectual Property (IP) and Innovation for Youth Entrepreneurship and Start-ups"
Belgium; Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cameroon; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Eswatini; France; Ghana; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Philippines; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Singapore; South Africa; Switzerland; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Zambia; Zimbabwe
37 WIPO-ARIPO-OAPI-MIP Alumni Conferences: Intellectual Property for Business Management in Harare
Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Eswatini; Gabon; The Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Lesotho; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
38 Master's Degree in Intellectual Property (MIP) program offered jointly by WIPO, ARIPO and Africa University
Kenya; Malawi; Nigeria; Uganda; Zimbabwe
39 Master's Degree in Intellectual Property (MIP) program offered jointly by WIPO, OAPI and University of Yaoundé II
Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Chad; Côte d'Ivoire; Gabon; Niger; Senegal; Togo
40 WIPO – South Africa Summer School Shifts Focus to IP and Public Health
Cameroon; Ghana; Malawi; Namibia; Sierra Leone; Uganda; Zambia
41 Hands-on Training on Examination by practicing the skills and knowledge for Patent Examiners of Department of Patents, Designs and Trademarks (DPDT) Bangladesh
42 Hands-on Training on Examination in the PCT national Phase for Examiners of Angolan Institute of Intellectual Property (IAPI)
43 Regional Meeting of Intellectual Property Office Officials Responsible for the Madrid System for Selected Asia and Pacific Countries
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mongolia; Pakistan; Philippines; Samoa; Thailand; Viet Nam
44 Sub-Regional Workshop on the Hague System for Stakeholders
Botswana; Ghana; Namibia; Rwanda
45 WIPO Regional Meeting on Developing the ASEAN Regional Technology and Innovation Support Center (TISC) Network
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Philippines; Thailand; Viet Nam
46 WIPO-ARIPO Sub-Regional Meeting on Developing the Regional Technology and Innovation Support Center (TISC) Network
Botswana; Eswatini; The Gambia; Ghana; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Malawi; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Seychelles; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
47 Workshop on Access to Technology for Innovation and the Development of Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISCs) in Nouakchott, Mauritania
48 Sub-Regional Seminar on Intellectual Property Enforcement in the Digital Environment for Government and Law Enforcement Officials
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Philippines; Thailand; Viet Nam
49 Scholarships for the International Patent Drafting Program
Botswana; Malaysia; Nigeria; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Togo; Viet Nam
50 IP Fellowship Program in Japan
Brazil; Mozambique; Pakistan; Tajikistan
51 WIPO Japan Office Organized an International Symposium
Benin; Cambodia; The Gambia; Liberia; Malawi; Myanmar; Tanzania; Zambia
52 WIPO Regional Training Program on Cloud-Native IPAS 4 for ARIPO Member States
Botswana; Eswatini; The Gambia; Ghana; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Malawi; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; Rwanda; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
53 WIPO-ASEAN Information Technology Conference and ASEAN PATENTSCOPE Coordinator Meeting
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam