France has notified the following examples of geographical indications: (1) Agricultural and agri-food products - Spirit drinks: Cognac, Registered Appellation of Origin (RAO), Decree of 15 May 1935. - Wines: Chateauneuf du Pape RAO, Decree of 2 November 1966; Southern French wines, Decree of 15 October 1987. - Cheeses and other dairy produce: Beaufort RAO, Decree of 12 August 1993; Tomme de Savoie, Label No. 02.76, Order of 27 July 1978, Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). - Other food products: Nyons olive oil and Nyons black olives RAO, Decrees of 10 January 1994; Landes yellow chicken, Label No. 18-91, Order of 23 June 1992, PGI; Lautrec pink garlic, Label No. 02.66, Order of 20 June 1966, PGI. (2) Other products Tahiti Monoi, appellation of origin, Decree No. 92-340 of 1 April 1992, appended. All these geographical indications are protected in France by the provisions of the Consumer Code and by Decree No. 68-807 (see the reply to question 1 above).
[Answer 1: There are various texts providing protection for geographical indications: the Consumer Code enacted by Law No. 93-949 of 26 July 1993, as amended, and Decree No. 68-807 of 13 September 1968. In general, geographical indications are subject to the general requirement of conformity laid down by Articles L 212-1 ff. of the Consumer Code. Thus, deception with respect to the nature, composition or origin (Article L 217-6 of the Consumer Code) of the product and the possession, display and offering for sale of such products are punishable offences. Similarly, Article L 121-1 prohibits all advertising that includes, in whatever form, allegations, indications or representations that are false or such as to mislead where these relate to ... the origin ... of the goods and services advertised. Articles L 115-1 to L 155-26 of the Consumer Code afford specific protection for the designations eligible under French intellectual property law, namely appellations of origin and registered appellations of origin, as well as protected geographical indications and protected designations of origin within the meaning of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2081/92 of 14 July 1992 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. In this case each recognized geographical indication is published in the Official Journal of the French Republic (Journal Officiel de la République Française - JORF) in the form of a decree-order, which establishes entitlement to protection.]