United States of America
Copyright and Related Rights
[Follow-up question] Please describe how the exceptions in Articles 30(1), 38 and 102 of the Japanese copyright law have been strictly interpreted so as to bring them within the permissible limitations on rights set forth in Berne and TRIPS. In particular, has the text of these Articles of Japanese law been limited in operation or application in any way, such as by considering the effect on the market for the work, the nature of the work, or the specific nature of the use?
(i) Article 30(1) -the reproduction has be done by the user himself; -"other similar uses within a limited circle" is strictly applied not to include "friends"; -the number of copies should be limited; -reproduction for profit making purpose is not permissible; -reproduction for the user's business is not permissible even if that business is non profitable. (ii)Article 38(1) Article 38(1) permits public performance of works under some conditions: Firstly, it should be done for non profit making purpose. "Non profit making purpose" does not merely mean "no admission charge", and indirect contribution to profit making is not permissible. For example, free public performance for advertisement, background music in a factory, music played in a hotel lobby are all considered as for "profit making purposes". Secondly, no fee should be charged. "Fee" includes any type of payment including, for example, monthly payment for the membership of a group. Thirdly, the performers should not receive any payment. "Payment" includes all types of money that the performers receive regardless of the denomination. (iii)Article 38(2) Article 38(2) allows wire diffusion of a work already broadcast under some conditions. These conditions are similar to those in Article 38(1), but there is an additional condition i.e. "already broadcast". Because of this condition this paragraph virtually applies only to simultaneous wire diffusion for areas with difficulty in receiving the original broadcasting. (iv)Article 38(3) Article 38(3) allows communication to the public of works already broadcast or wire diffused by a receiving apparatus under certain conditions. Most of the conditions overlap with those in Article 38(1). (v)Article 38(4) Article 38(4) allows lending of works under certain conditions. They are also included in Article 38(1). As a result of such conditions, the lending right of the Japanese Copyright Law virtually becomes the right of commercial rental except for cinematographic works. (vi)Article 38(5) Article 38(5) allows lending of cinematographic works under certain conditions. Some of the conditions overlap with those in Article 38(1). However, this paragraph provides for two additional conditions; firstly the lending has to be done by audiovisual education facilities designated by the Government and secondly, such facilities shall pay compensation.