United States of America
Russian Federation
Copyright and Related Rights
2. Article 1234 (IP/N/1/RUS/O/2 at 360-361): We have two concerns here. 1) Paragraph 1 seems to require a complete transfer of all the rights as the only type of exclusive license that an author can give. Can an author provide an exclusive license limited to only one right (i.e., reproduction) and maintain ownership of the other exclusive rights? 2) Paragraph 2 appears to impose a formality (see the term "subject to state registration."). Do rightsholders have to register the contract of alienation of exclusive rights? Would a foreign author who sells or assigns a right have to register such sale/assignment in Russia?
Article 1233 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation provides two kinds of contract on the disposal of an exclusive right by rightholder: Contract for the Alienation of an Exclusive Right (Civil Code of the Russian Federation, Article 1234) and License Contract (License Contract, Article 1235). License Contract provided in Article 1234 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation Contract for the Alienation of an Exclusive Right provide author's (rightholder's) possibility to transfer (alienate) the exclusive right belonging to him to a result of intellectual activity or a means of individualization in full scope to the other party (the recipient) that means absence of the copyright to use transmitted the result of intellectual activity in any way subsequently. By a contract for the alienation this right shall pass to the recipient acquiring the result of intellectual activity. In Article 1235 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation stipulates that a license contract (on submitting of an exclusive license or nonexclusive license). Such kind of contract is widely used in all countries as the rightholder's method of disposal of exclusive rights whereby the licensor (rightholder) saves the exclusive right to a result of intellectual activity and the licensee may use the specific result of intellectual activity in stipulated ways on certain territory by certain terms. Conclusion of License Contract shall entail a transition of the exclusive right to the licensee. In case the author (rightholder) concludes a contract about alienation of the exclusive right to the result of intellectual activity or to the means of individualization with whom provide a procedure of state registration, than this contract also needs to state registration. Mandatory state registration are required only in the Patent Rights Object (CC RF, Chapter 72), Achievements of Breeding (CC RF, Chapter 73), Means of Individualization (CC RF, Chapter 76). According contracts about alienation of the exclusive right to the indicated result of intellectual activity shall be subject to state registration also (paragraph 2 of Article 1232 of the CC RF). Contracts about alienation of the exclusive rights to copyright or related right are not subject of state registration.