United States of America
Russian Federation
Copyright and Related Rights
15. We remain concerned that Russian law might not adequately protect foreign works and related rights, including pre-existing works and related rights. We have noted that there are numerous provisions dealing with this issue (Articles 1231, 1256, 1304, 1318, 1321, 1324, 1328 and 1341), but were unable to confirm the required coverage. Some of our concern may relate to translations issues or to the accuracy of IP/N/RUS/0/2.
Article 1256 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation defines realization of the exclusive right to Works of Scholarship, Literature, and Art on the territory of the Russian Federation because of publishing on the territory of the Russian Federation or because of principle of author's citizenship of such works (or them successor). Russian legislator proceeds from place of publishing of work (or his existence in objective form in case of absence of publishing) to give the exclusive right to work on the territory of the Russian Federation. In case if work made public on the territory of the Russian Federation than the exclusive right to such work shall be recognized for authors (or their legal successors) regardless of their citizenship. It concerns also cases when work not made public existing in some objective form on the territory of the Russian Federation. A work also shall be considered first made public by publication in the Russian Federation if, in the course of thirty days after the date of first publication, it was published on the territory of the Russian Federation. In case if work made public beyond the boundaries of the territory of the Russian Federation, need to take by attention author's citizenship (or his legal successor). If work made public beyond the boundaries of the territory of the Russian Federation author of work (his legal successor) being citizen of the Russian Federation, Russian legislator keeps the exclusive right to work by such persons. It concerns also cases when work not made public exists in some objective form beyond the boundaries of the territory of the Russian Federation at author or his legal successor who are citizens of the Russian Federation. In other cases the exclusive right to works made public or existing in some objective form beyond the boundaries of the Russian Federation and shall be recognized, in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation, for authors (or their legal successors) who are citizens of other states. Herewith the time period of the exclusive right established in the country of origin of the work may not exceeds the time period of the exclusive right to these works in the Russian Federation. In case if the time period of the exclusive right in the country of origin of the work has expired and the exclusive right have entered the public domain than this work enters the public domain in the Russian Federation too. Moreover primary rightholder is determined in accordance with a law of state where was happened a fact which is basis for acquisition of the copyright. According to point 3 of Article 1304 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation the granting on the territory of the Russian Federation of protection for objects of neighboring rights in accordance with the international treaties of the Russian Federation shall be conducted in case if in the country of origin of the work it have not entered the public domain and have not entered the public domain on the territory of the Russian Federation. In other articles of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation Russian legislator proceeds from principle of the citizenship/place of location or implementation (for the performance are not fixed in phonograms) / promulgation (phonograms) on the territory of the Russian Federation aside from the conditions of the international treaties of the Russian Federation for granting legal protection to some object of neighboring rights.