Unión Europea
Derecho de autor y derechos conexos
11. Does Article 92(1) of the Copyright Law, in combination with Article 112(1) of this Law, give performers the possibility to prevent any communication to the public of their live performance when undertaken without their authorization, including where such communication does not require any active participation by the person communicating the performance, such as where works are made available for access on line (Article 14.1 of the TRIPS Agreement)?
Based on Article 92(1) of the Japanese Copyright Law, performers have the exclusive right of transmission to the public by any means including wire or wireless transmission, simultaneous or on demand, analog or digital, of their live performance when such transmission is undertaken without their authorization. As to the communication to the public other than the transmission to the public, performers themselves can exercise "the possibility of preventing" it by contract.