Japón
Estados Unidos de América
Observancia de los derechos de propiedad intelectual
1. Please explain whether "proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case" stipulated in Article 55 of the TRIPS Agreement, are judicial or administrative.
Under US law, "proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of a case" referred to in Article 55 of the TRIPS Agreement are customarily administrative, but parties also can proceed judicially, either initially or after they have exhausted administrative remedies.