Actividades de cooperación técnica en el marco del artículo 67 del Acuerdo sobre los ADPIC - Ver detalles del documento

World Health Organization (WHO)

This communication summarizes the technical cooperation activities of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the area of public health, innovation and intellectual property that have taken place since the last report in October 2022 (document IP/C/R/TC/WHO/3). The overall objective of WHO's technical cooperation is to strengthen the capacity of developing countries in the areas of health innovation, timely access to medicines and management of intellectual property in a manner that maximizes public health.

 

WHO's technical cooperation is based on its mandate derived from the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI) as well as relevant resolutions and decisions of the World Health Assembly, including WHA72.8 on "Improving the transparency of markets for medicines, vaccines, and other health products"[1] , WHA73.1 on the "COVID-19 response,"[2] WHA74.6 on "Strengthening local production of medicines and other health technologies to improve access"[3] and WHA75.14 on the extension of the time frame of the "Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property" from 2022 to 2030.[4]

 

In resolution WHA74.6, the Seventy-fourth World Health Assembly emphasized the need to improve access to quality, safe, effective and affordable medicines and other health technologies, inter alia, through cooperation with, support to and development of voluntary patent pools and other voluntary initiatives, such as the WHO COVID-19 Technology Access Pool (C-TAP). WHA74.6, inter alia, requested the WHO Director-General to continue to provide technical support, as appropriate, upon request, in collaboration with other competent international organizations, like the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), including to policy processes and to countries that intend to make use of the provisions contained in the TRIPS Agreement, including the flexibilities affirmed by the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health in order to promote access to pharmaceutical products.[5]

 

WHO, through its Headquarters, Regional and Country Offices collaborates closely with relevant international organizations on topics related to the interface between public health, innovation, intellectual property and trade. WHO has requested full support and collaboration from WIPO, WTO and other international organizations to ensure efficient and effective implementation of certain prioritized actions of the GSPA-PHI overall programme review panel. Activities focus on technical guidance, transfer of technology, local manufacturing, capacity-building and training, and direct technical assistance to countries. WHO, WIPO and WTO worked in close collaboration to respond to the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to the integrated health, trade and IP policy framework, including equitable access to COVID-19 health technologies, such as medicines, vaccines, medical devices, and diagnostics. 

Following the WHO Director-General's declaration that COVID-19 no longer constitutes a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC), the three organizations have continued to work together to ensure preparedness and effective response to future pandemics.[6]

 

2 AN INTEGRATED HEALTH, TRADE AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY APPROACH TO RESPOND TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

On 14 July 2023, WHO, WIPO and WTO launched the second update of the extract "Integrated health, trade and IP approach to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic".[7] This extract maps the challenges posed by the COVID-19 in relation to the integrated health, trade and intellectual property framework set out in the second edition of the Trilateral Study on "Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation".[8] The update contains developments up until 17 May 2023, and covers topics including the impact of COVID-19 on health systems and responses at the global level, policy challenges, meeting the demand for health technologies and medical services, international trade, intellectual property aspects, international initiatives to support research and development and equitable access, regulatory responses, transparency and mapping the way forward. The update also highlights IP-related measures implemented by both developed and developing countries to facilitate access to COVID-19 health technologies during the pandemic.  

 

3 INTENSIFIED COOPERATION IN SUPPORT OF ACCESS TO MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE TO TACKLE THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND PREPARE FOR FUTURE PANDEMICS

The Directors-General of the WHO, WIPO and WTO agreed to organize practical capacity-building workshops at the technical level to enhance the flow of updated information on current developments in the pandemic and responses to achieve equitable access to COVID-19 health technologies.[9] The third in the series of workshops titled "WHO-WIPO-WTO Workshop on Innovation and Access to diagnostics for COVID-19 and beyond" was held on 28 October 2022. The workshop, held virtually, was focused on diagnostics – specifically, in vitro diagnostics – and there were discussions on challenges, opportunities and the way forward to secure innovation and access to diagnostics. This was aimed at, among others, strengthening capacity of policymakers and experts in member governments to assess medical devices and diagnostics therapeutic technologies in response to COVID-19.[10]

 

On 16 December 2022, WHO, WIPO and WTO held a joint technical symposium on "COVID-19 Pandemic: Response, Preparedness, Resilience". The Symposium was the ninth in a series of joint technical symposia convened by the three organizations. The objective of the Symposium was to examine key challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic experienced within the frameworks of health, trade and intellectual property (IP) and to discuss the way forward to build resilience to be better prepared for future pandemics. This event was held in hybrid format at the WIPO headquarters.[11]   

 

On 27 June, 2023, WHO, WIPO and WTO jointly organized a webinar on "Technology Transfer from the Perspectives of Practitioners". This practical capacity-building webinar was the fourth in the series of trilateral workshops and it drew from the experience and perspectives of technology transfer practitioners working on the ground. The purpose of the webinar was to strengthen the capacity of policymakers and experts to achieve equitable access to COVID-19 health technologies and to be better prepared for future pandemics. The event was hosted by the WTO.[12]

 

The three organizations continue to intensify cooperation through regular coordination meetings at Technical, Directors, and ADG/DDGs levels. Additionally, on 12 September 2023, the Directors-General of WHO, WIPO and WTO met in Geneva to agree on future directions for trilateral cooperation. This was their third meeting since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. They agreed to shift the focus of trilateral cooperation from the response to the COVID-19 pandemic to increasing and broadening support for more effective and sustainable use of flexibilities in the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to increase access to health technologies and to be better prepared for future pandemics. To mirror this broader focus of trilateral cooperation, and to respond to members' evolving needs, the Directors-General agreed to expand the use of the WHO-WIPO-WTO COVID-19 Technical Assistance Platform beyond COVID-19. Noting the multiple crises caused by climate change, environmental degradation and biodiversity loss and their impact on human health, they also agreed to make climate change and human health the topic of the next session in the series of high-level trilateral policy symposia.[13]

 

4 ACCESS ORIENTED LICENSING AND COVID-19 TECHNOLOGY ACCESS POOL (C-TAP)

 

Since its creation in May 2020, the WHO COVID-19 Technology Access Pool (C-TAP) has prioritized engagement with technology holders to encourage sharing of intellectual property, know-how or data to promote global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics or other medical devices. In July 2023, under the auspices of C-TAP, the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) signed a worldwide license with Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corp. for a COVID-19 vaccine based on the COVID-19 spike protein sequence that it licensed from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).[14] More than three million doses of the vaccine have been administered across seven countries.[15] This is the first transparent, global, non-exclusive license for a COVID-19 vaccine and the first health technology developed by a private company and included in C-TAP.  

 

In July 2023, under the auspices of C-TAP, the MPP signed a worldwide license with the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) for a COVID-19 vaccine consisting of a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing a full-length prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and called MVA-CoV2-S(3P) (the CSIC COVID-19 Vaccine).[16] This is the second technology developed by CSIC and included in C-TAP. 

In July 2023, under the auspices of C-TAP, the MPP signed a worldwide license with the University of Chile for a system for quantification of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2. This diagnostic can be used in facilities using heightened control measures similar to Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) laboratories.[17] The agreement covers transfer of all know-how, protocols and biological materials needed to manufacture the diagnostic test. 

 

C-TAP launched the WHO Technology Access Pool Database in August 2023 to provide wide-ranging information on selected therapeutics, diagnostics, vaccines and other health products to tackle COVID-19 and other endemic diseases.[18] This publicly available database includes inter alia, information on clinical trials, patents and licensing, manufacturers, and regulatory status of key health products for informed decision-making. In line with the WHO transparency resolution, it enhances WHO's work on promoting transparency of data across the value chain for health products towards achieving universal health coverage.[19] Also, it supports existing efforts to determine the patent status of health products, in line with the GSPA-PHI. 

 

To secure voluntary transfer of additional health technologies, C-TAP has been collaborating with the University of Cape Town, a public research university based in Cape Town, South Africa, and the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), an Institution of National Importance under the Department of Science and Technology in India. This is to ensure cooperation and understanding for the efficient transfer of essential health technologies created by these reputed research institutions. The transfer of technologies might take the form of intellectual property, knowledge, and/or data and may include the provision of training, capacity building, technical and logistical advice, and support.  

 

WHO launched a study on "Strategies to facilitate sharing of technology and knowledge". This study is aimed at promoting engagement of technology holders with C-TAP to share essential health technologies for global equitable access. The WHO secretariat administered a questionnaire for member States to identify legislation, regulations, guidelines and procedures that can be amended or introduced to encourage sharing of health technologies. The study summarizes responses from member States and analyzes possible measures that may be implemented at the country level to encourage participation of technology holders in C-TAP. The discussion contained in the study is intended to inform all actors involved in the process of introducing or amending legislations, regulations, guidelines, and procedures to implement incentives for voluntary transfer of critical health technologies to reduce the dire effects of health emergencies globally. 

 

A review of C-TAP was undertaken by WHO to assess the successes, challenges, and possible areas for improvement of the mechanism based on experience to date.  The review included C-TAP's mission and scope, governance structure and operating model, stakeholder engagement, and performance – both overall and across the technology development – licensing – technology transfer/scale-up and access dimensions. The review was also designed to inform the possible post-pandemic role of an evolved C-TAP model in addressing future pandemics and other public health issues within the broader health products ecosystem with a view to promoting synergies and increasing collective impact.  WHO is preparing to share findings of the review of C-TAP and a proposed model for an evolved technology access pool. Stakeholders will have an opportunity to provide comments on a concept paper including the process and timelines for its implementation. 

 

On 11 April 2023, WHO together with Unitaid and with the support of Medicines Law & Policy jointly published a briefing document for member States on "Improving access to novel COVID-19 treatments".[20] The document explains some of the legal instruments that WHO member States can use to promote public health and access to COVID 19 therapeutics in the framework of their multilateral trade obligations and rights, and according to their national legislation and level of development.  It is intended to support countries dealing with challenges at the intersection of public health and intellectual property, to increase access to novel COVID-19 therapeutics and to facilitate alternative and more affordable sourcing of such treatments, where possible. Member States should use all tools available to them, including voluntary licensing, to overcome intellectual property barriers. Countries that are not covered by voluntary licenses are encouraged to use to the full flexibilities under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health.   

 

5 THE mRNA VACCINE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER HUB

Launched in July 2021, the mRNA vaccine technology transfer hub was established by WHO together with partners and a South African consortium to build capacity in low- and middle-income countries to produce mRNA vaccines, thus promoting equitable access in under-served regions.[21] Afrigen Biologics and Vaccines – a member of the consortium mandated to establish mRNA vaccine production technology – has successfully established a COVID-19 vaccine manufacturing process at laboratory scale.[22] The first batches of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate, AfriVac 2121, have already been produced. The vaccine is currently being developed to a level suitable for phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. In April 2023, WHO and partners inaugurated a mRNA technology hub facility at Afrigen for the next phase of the mRNA vaccine development. In a parallel process, Afrigen continues to carry out training and technology transfer to the network partners.

 

In May 2023, WHO and the Republic of Korea signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish a global training hub in biomanufacturing.[23] This global training centre will serve all low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to produce biologicals, such as vaccines, insulin, monoclonal antibodies, and cancer medicines. This initiative will contribute to building a skilled workforce with unique competencies required in bioproduction. The global bio-manufacturing training hub will complement the trainings delivered by the mRNA vaccine technology transfer hub in South Africa. 

    

 

6 ACCESS TO COVID-19 TOOLS ACCELERATOR (ACT-A)

In July 2022, the ACT-A Facilitation Council commissioned an independent, external evaluation of ACT-A with the objective of learning from ACT-A experiences and to identify key lessons learnt for future pandemic preparedness and response.[24] The evaluation was also aimed at providing learnings for institutional solutions to enhance global equitable access to medical countermeasures (MCMs) in the future. The evaluation was carried out between 11 July 2022 and 10 October 2022. Inputs were gathered from countries, regional organizations, ACT-A agencies, civil society organizations, academia, and the private sector.[25] In addition to key findings, the evaluation highlighted lessons learnt from ACT-A's experiences as the need for: increased research and development coordination, a contingent funding platform for medical countermeasures, improved global functions, building regional manufacturing capacity and health systems strengthening.   

 

In October 2022, ACT-A introduced changes to its setup and ways of working as the COVID-19 pandemic waned.[26] The transition was aimed at supporting countries with long-term COVID-19 control, specifically by ensuring that countries have sustained access to the vaccines, tests, and treatments needed to manage the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Among others, the ACT-A Facilitation Council went into stand-by mode and its key functions are being performed by a new ACT-A Tracking and Monitoring Task Force. The transition plan set out three core areas for the next phase of ACT-A's work, namely, focusing on R&D and market shaping activities for a new pipeline of COVID-19 tools; securing longer-term institutional arrangements for sustained access to COVID-19 tools; and concentrating delivery work on new product introduction and the protection of priority populations, in support of national and international coverage targets.[27] In May 2023, ACT-A reported progress made by its partner agencies in implementing these transition objectives.[28]

 

 

7 MEDICAL COUNTERMEASURES PLATFORM FOR PANDEMICS

In February 2023, WHO convened a design and consultation process on a new medical countermeasures platform for pandemics to build on experiences and learnings from ACT-A, the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (PIP) and other relevant inter-agency initiatives focused on epidemic-prone diseases.[29] An important goal of this process is to help achieve convergence of the many parallel discussions underway on enhancing access to countermeasures, with the aim of ensuring that all these efforts are working for a common purpose. The consultation process will encompass three key issues that are essential to the design of a future medical countermeasures platform: governance, operating model, and surge financing. 

 

Upon completion of an initial prototyping phase, a High-Level Consultative Group – made up of high-level officials and representatives from countries, international organizations and agencies, industry, regional entities, and civil society – will take forward the consultations with a view towards reaching convergence on a new 'working' platform.[30]      

 

 



duenase@who.int

Lista de programas/proyectos

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# Título del programa o la actividad Fecha de inicio Miembros o observadores beneficiarios  
1 WHO, WIPO, WTO Workshop on Innovation and Access to diagnostics for COVID-19 and beyond 28/10/2022 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
2 WHO, WIPO and WTO Symposium on “COVID-19 Pandemic: Response, Preparedness, Resilience” 16/12/2022 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
3 WHO, WIPO, WTO Webinar on “Technology Transfer from the Perspectives of Practitioners” 27/06/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
4 License by Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corp. under the auspices of WHO COVID-19 Technology Access Pool 18/07/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
5 License by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) under the auspices of WHO COVID-19 Technology Access Pool 18/07/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
6 License by University of Chile under the auspices of the WHO COVID-19 Technology Access Pool 18/07/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
7 WHO Technology Access Pool Database 29/08/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
8 Study on "Strategies to facilitate sharing of technology and knowledge" 03/10/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
9 Briefing Document on “Improving access to novel COVID-19 treatments” 11/04/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
10 Establishment of a global training hub in biomanufacturing 26/05/2023 Afghanistan; Albania; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bahrain, Kingdom of; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational State of; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cabo Verde; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Eswatini; European Union; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; The Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait, the State of; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; North Macedonia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Chinese Taipei; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Türkiye; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe