Rapport des pays développés Membres sur la mise en œuvre de l'article 66:2 de l'Accord sur les ADPIC (au sujet du transfert de technologie aux PMA) ‒ Afficher les détails du document

Norway

1 INTRODUCTION

  1. Article 66.2 of the TRIPS Agreement requires developed country Members to provide incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to least developed country (LDC) Members in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base. The present note provides an overview of the relevant facilities provided by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) and the Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries (Norfund).
  2. LDCs are eligible for Norad and Norfund incentive schemes along with other developing countries.

2  THE NORWEGIAN AGENCY FOR DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION (NORAD)

  1. Norad is a directorate under the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is responsible for quality assurance of Norwegian development cooperation. Norad also administers several grant programmes for specific purposes, among them is private sector development. Norad provides incentives for technology transfer to LDCs through its facilities for pre‑investment support, the Strategic partnerships, and The Knowledge Bank of Norad and its technical cooperation through knowledge programs like the Oil for Development, the Fish for Development, Oceans for Development, Tax for Development, Digitalization for Development, Statistics and register cooperation, Agriculture for Development, Energy for Development  programmes. Within these programmes are over a hundred agreements with both governments, research institutions NGOs and multilateral organizations. Many other programmes supported by Norad also include elements of technology transfer.
  2. The facilities for pre-investment support are application-based and untied. The main users are Norwegian enterprises, but foreign enterprises are welcome to apply. The schemes are open for all kinds of technology transfer, but from 2022 priority is given to investments in renewable energy. Technical assistance is the main mode of technology transfer, but the schemes also include investments in basic infrastructure. The financing facilities are fully utilized every year.
  3. The purpose of the Norad facilities for pre-investment support is to encourage firms to invest in developing countries and LDCs. The support schemes intend to pave the way for long-term commercially viable investments through financial support for risk-reducing measures and/or measures that promote the sustainability and feasibility of private investment projects. The facilities promote cooperation, including cooperation relating to transfer of technology, through the support of feasibility studies for establishing joint ventures or foreign subsidiaries; training to strengthen the local staff and management of joint ventures or companies that are owned wholly or partially by one or more foreign companies; and investments in basic environmental infrastructure and basic infrastructure (road, water/sanitation, electricity, and telecommunication). The additionality of Norad's support to individual companies has been in helping direct investment towards countries and regions where companies would not necessarily have invested otherwise, due to lack of contact to facilitate implementation and risk, among other reasons. The purpose of the facility is also to facilitate and promote job creation, in particular for women and youths. Supported projects are usually completed between one to three years. Disbursements to LDCs for this facility in 2021 are listed in Table 1. The Norad facilities for pre-investment support have a special window for renewable energy investments, also listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Disbursements to pre-investment support to firms to invest in developing countries and LDCs. Figures in NOK.

Recipient country

DAC Main sector

DAC Sub sector

 2022

Colombia

140 Water and sanitation

21 Water supply - large systems

 8 790

Colombia

220 Communications

40 Information and communication technology (ICT)

 1 500 000

Colombia

160 Other social infrastructure and services

20 Employment creation

 750 000

Colombia

311 Agriculture

62 Industrial crops/export crops

 1 000 000

Ethiopia

321 Industry

62 Forest industries

 261 044

Ghana

313 Fishing

20 Fishery development

 181 500

India

321 Industry

67 Energy manufacturing

 379 150

India

140 Water and sanitation

22 Sanitation - large systems

 641 227

Indonesia

220 Communications

40 Information and communication technology (ICT)

 043 059

Sri Lanka

220 Communications

40 Information and communication technology (ICT)

 439 015

Myanmar

313 Fishing

20 Fishery development

 587 008

Myanmar

321 Industry

61 Agro-industries

 77 845

Nigeria

220 Communications

40 Information and communication technology (ICT)

 930 242

South Africa

140 Water and sanitation

21 Water supply - large systems

 118 593

Rwanda

313 Fishing

20 Fishery development

 332 491

Viet Nam

220 Communications

40 Information and communication technology (ICT)

 1 036 024

Uganda

311 Agriculture

93 Agricultural financial services

 512 033

Cameroon

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

31 Solar energy for isolated grids and standalone systems

 469 008

Ghana

321 Industry

74 Clean cooking appliances manufacturing

 1 847 189

Indonesia

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

20 Hydro-electric power plants

 3 181 210

Kenya

321 Industry

73 Modern biofuels manufacturing

 240 683

Madagascar

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

20 Hydro-electric power plants

 4 517 868

Malawi

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

20 Hydro-electric power plants

 4 444 074

Myanmar

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

20 Hydro-electric power plants

 361 251

Rwanda Total

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

20 Hydro-electric power plants

 34 843 128

South Sudan

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

31 Solar energy for isolated grids and standalone systems

 715 595

Tanzania

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

40 Wind energy

 583 446

Viet Nam

232 Energy generation, renewable sources

40 Wind energy

 5 000 000

Grand Total

 

 

 67 001 472

 

 

  1. Within Norad's support to Renewable Energy the aim is to increase access to renewable energy in developing countries, contribute to private sector development, and create jobs. Norad's support to renewable energy focuses on areas where Norway has a special expertise to offer and mobilizes private capital and competence in areas such as hydropower, solar, wind and bioenergy.
  2. Norad has also introduced an instrument called strategic partnerships. The grant scheme aims to stimulate a business climate that promotes private sector development in developing countries, including strategic partnerships with private enterprises and non-commercial organizations. Private enterprises and noncommercial organizations that jointly address specific weaknesses in value chains in developing countries are particularly prioritized, but vocational training is also a focus area. The facility is application-based and untied. In the most recent application round, projects in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda were granted support. The sectors prioritised for technology transfer are agriculture and agro-processing, information and communication technology (ICT), and fish and marine resources. The supported projects are multi‑year, usually between three and five years. Disbursements to LDCs for this facility in 2022 are listed in Table 2.

Table 2: Disbursements to strategic partnership grant scheme. Figures in NOK.

Recipient country DAC Main sector DAC Sub sector

2022

Ethiopia

321 Industry

30 SME development

5 600 000

Ethiopia

311 Agriculture

50 Agricultural inputs

3 398 000

Ethiopia

311 Agriculture

20 Agricultural development

8 701 716

Ghana

311 Agriculture

62 Food crop production

6 253 049

Kenya

321 Industry

73 Modern biofuels manufacturing

835 288

Kenya

311 Agriculture

20 Agricultural development

5 200 000

Mozambique

311 Agriculture

20 Agricultural development

2 762 371

Kenya

410 General environmental protection

30 Bio-diversity

3 231 242

Tanzania

311 Agriculture

20 Agricultural development

1 586 011

Uganda

311 Agriculture

20 Agricultural development

1 290 000

Uganda

311 Agriculture

20 Agricultural development

3 928 900

 

 

  1. The Norwegian Oil for Development Programme (OfD) aims at assisting developing countries and LDCs, upon their request, in their efforts to manage petroleum resources in a way that generates economic growth and promotes welfare of the whole population in an environmentally sustainable way. The Oil for Development Programme is engaged in several other initiatives, either directly or via other donors and implementing partners. the Government of Norway has decided to phase out the OfD programme within 2024, in order to give priority to greener development projects.
  2. Within Norwegian development cooperation in fisheries and aquaculture, one aim is to introduce appropriate technology and systems, and over time ensure that these are operated as intended. Norway has supported the Nansen Programme for more than 40 years. One central element in the programme is the research vessel 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen'. The programme aims at gathering information about the marine resources and environment, and supporting developing countries and LDCs in utilizing these data for improved management of their marine resources.
  3. Since 1990 the programme has mainly been operating in the coastal states of Africa, including LDCs like Angola, Benin, Democratic Republic of Congo, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mozambique, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Tanzania. The programme has also conducted surveys in Bay of Bengal, including LDCs like Myanmar and Bangladesh. Scientists and managers take part in the planning and operation of the surveys, as well as post-survey work. The participants learn about instruments and techniques to measure the size and composition of fish stocks as well as identification of other organisms in the ocean. Physical parameters of the marine environment are measured continuously. The results are analysed and formulated as basis for management decisions. With time series that are developed, information can be achieved about changes and trends in the marine environment and its resources. The data collected are the property of the country in question. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) manages the programme. The Institute of Marine Research in Norway provides scientific expertise.

 

 3  NORWEGIAN INVESTMENT FUND FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (NORFUND)

3.1  About Norfund

  1. The purpose of Norfund is to contribute to building sustainable commercial businesses in developing countries by providing risk capital and expertise. Norfund contributes to economic development and sustainable jobs in poor countries through the development of profitable enterprises, particularly within the fields of clean energy, the financial sector and agribusiness, coupled with transfer of knowledge and technology.
  2. Norfund's main priority investment region is Sub-Saharan Africa. We also invest in selected countries in South-East Asia and Central America. Norfund has a local presence with offices and staff in all the main geographic areas. We aim for a portfolio with at least 33% in LDCs and 50% in Sub-Saharan Africa as these are areas with a particular shortage of capital and expertise. Of new commitments in 2022, the LDC share amounted to NOK 1.00 billion. Of the total portfolio, our commitment in LDCs is 37%, well above our target of 33%.
  3. Norfund concentrates investments in clean energy, agribusiness and manufacturing, green infrastructure, and financial institutions. These are sectors with high developmental returns and where Norfund's prerequisites for mobilising expertise of international quality are good. Assistance from Norfund is untied and does not have to be in cooperation with Norwegian enterprises.
  4. Norfund provides capital in the form of equity and debt. Preference is given to equity investments because in most developing countries equity is the scarcest type of capital that enterprises need. Our direct ownership enables us to be an influential investor and have direct impact on company governance. As an equity investor, we have a long-term perspective on our investments. Technology and competence transfers are an integral part of Norfund's investment activities, both regarding operational and industrial management, as well as health, safety and environmental issues. The development of these elements is core to the organization's mission.
  5. Norfund exercises active ownership in the companies and funds it invests in, and it often requires seats on the investees' boards or other decision-making bodies. This gives Norfund proximity to operations and the possibility of influencing practices and standards over time. Given an ownership horizon of 4-10 years, Norfund works for the creation of a corporate culture that is engaged in continuous improvement of corporate governance, and environmental and social standards. Action plans are sometimes used to stake out a long-term course for how companies should shift from operating according to local standards to using international standards.
  6. Norfund also has a business development and support facility, which is financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) to support sustainable investments. The facility was established in 2000 based on mutual recognition by MFA, Norad and Norfund of the need for technical and professional assistance (TA) in relation to investments in the private sector in developing countries. The grants contribute to strengthening the developmental impacts of Norfund's investment activities. In 2022, Norfund disbursed NOK 13.74 million to 48 active projects. 15 of these projects are exclusively in LDCs, with a commitment of NOK 13.4 million. 5 projects in the portfolio had a regional reach but included LDCs as part of their target countries. Capacity building on Environmental, Social and Governance has been one of the key priorities of the facility during 2022 and there has been high demand from investees in LDCs. Through the facility Norfund has co-funded external expertise assisting companies in building their internal capacity on these issues.

3.2  Investments in agribusiness and manufacturing

  1. Within the agribusiness and manufacturing sector, Norfund had committed around NOK 185 million by year end 2022 to our direct investments in investees' operations in LDCs.

3.3  Investments in renewable energy

  1. Within the field of clean energy, Norfund has several investments involving transfer of state-of-the-art technologies to developing countries. NOK 2.61 billion was committed to investees within clean energy in LDCs in 2022.

3.4  Investments in financial inclusion

 

  1. Financial inclusion is critical to support growth and job creation. When investing in banks, microfinance providers, and other financial institutions, Norfund focuses on locally-owned financial institutions with good growth potential that are suited to creating and delivering valuable services. Close to NOK 1.3 billion was committed to our direct investments in LDCs within the financial sector in 2022.
  2. In addition to direct investments, Norfund also invests in funds to reach more companies and other business areas. Norfund invests in private equity funds, small and medium-sized enterprises funds, and impact/venture funds. By investing through local and regional funds, Norfund can reach enterprises that often have trouble getting finance from formal banks. In 2022, Norfund committed close to NOK 235.8 million to funds in LDCs. 

 

 

marlene.larsen-hakkebo@mfa.no

Liste des programmes/projets

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# Nom du programme ou du projet Membre(s) bénéficiaire(s) Catégorie technologique  
1 Scalable Enterprises (Agribusiness and Manufacturing)
Congo; Haïti; Malawi; Mozambique; Niger; Ouganda; Sénégal; Tanzanie; Zambie
Food and agriculture
2 Clean Energy projects (Norfund)
Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Congo; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Niger; Ouganda; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Zambie
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology
3 DFI - Development Finance Institution projects
Angola; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Congo; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mozambique; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Togo; Zambie
Other
4 DFI - Development Finance Institution projects
Angola; Bangladesh; Cambodge; Congo; Libéria; Malawi; Myanmar; Ouganda; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Togo; Zambie
Other
5 Business development and support facility
Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Djibouti; Guinée-Bissau; Îles Salomon; Lesotho; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Népal; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; République démocratique du Congo; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tchad; Togo; Zambie
Other
6 Pre-investment support
Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Djibouti; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Haïti; Îles Salomon; Lesotho; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Népal; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; République démocratique du Congo; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Togo; Yémen; Zambie
Other
7 Renewable Energy (Norad)
Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Djibouti; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Haïti; Îles Salomon; Lesotho; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Népal; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; République démocratique du Congo; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Togo; Yémen; Zambie
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology
8 Strategic partnerships
Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Djibouti; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Haïti; Îles Salomon; Lesotho; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Népal; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; République démocratique du Congo; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Togo; Yémen; Zambie
Food and agriculture; Information and communications technology
9 The Norwegian Oil for Development Programme (OfD)
Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Djibouti; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Haïti; Îles Salomon; Lesotho; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Népal; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; République démocratique du Congo; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Togo; Yémen; Zambie
Other
10 Development cooperation in fisheries and aquaculture
Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Bénin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodge; Djibouti; Gambie; Guinée; Guinée-Bissau; Haïti; Îles Salomon; Lesotho; Libéria; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritanie; Mozambique; Myanmar; Népal; Niger; Ouganda; République centrafricaine; République démocratique du Congo; République démocratique populaire lao; Rwanda; Sénégal; Sierra Leone; Tanzanie; Tchad; Togo; Yémen; Zambie
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology; Food and agriculture