United States of America
Copyright and Related Rights
5. Please explain how the terms “few copies” and “private use” in Article 12 of the Copyright Act have been interpreted in Finland. How does this article, which seems to permit anyone to reproduce a “few copies” for private use, comply with Berne Article 9(2) and TRIPS Article 13, which require limitations and exceptions to exclusive rights to be limited to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the rightholder.
The provisions of Article 12 are in full conformity with Berne Article 9(2) and TRIPS Article 13. The concept of "few copies" was narrowed by the Amendment of 1980 to mean "even fewer", single, copies for private use. The meaning of "private use" was in Finland already before 1980 rather narrow. In 1980 it was narrowed further: only natural persons may have the advantage of making copies for private use. The firms, companies, associations and other legal entities were excluded from those who may benefit from this provision. The amendment launched collective management in the field of reprographic copying in the educational activities, public administration and business life. Furthermore, no other provisions concerning fair use or fair dealing open any possibilities to make copies without authorization.