In addition to the offences mentioned in the reply to question 21 in relation to intellectual property and industrial property, the following measures apply: • -Civil Liability, Articles 114 and 115 of the Penal Code The commission of an act described by the law as an offence or misdemeanour gives rise to civil liability. The civil consequences of the offence, which shall be set forth in the judgement, include: -Restitution of whatever was obtained as a consequence of the commission of the punishable act, failing which, payment of the value thereof; -reparation of the damage caused; -payment of material or moral damages to the victim or the victim's family; -procedural costs. Forfeiture of the product, profits and advantages deriving from the act, Article 126 of the Penal Code This provision stipulates that, without prejudice to such repayments and compensation as are due for the damages resulting from the act, the judge or court shall order the forfeiture, on behalf of the State, of the product, the profits and the advantages obtained by the convicted party as a result of the act. This forfeiture shall include assets, rights and goods obtained by any means for the purpose or as a result of the act, by the convicted party or any other person, natural or legal, on whose behalf the convicted party has acted. Seizure, Article 127 of the Penal Code This Article stipulates that, without prejudice to the rights of purchasers in good faith and for valuable consideration or to such improvements or expenditures as have been made by acquirers free of charge, the judge or the court shall order the confiscation or forfeiture on behalf of the State of the objects or instruments used by the convicted party to prepare or facilitate the act.
[Answer 21: Title VIII (Offences Relating to Property), Chapter VII (Offences Relating to Intellectual Property) of the Penal Code provides as follows: - Violation of copyright or neighbouring rights Article 226: The reproduction, plagiarization, distribution or public communication, in part or in full, of a literary, artistic, scientific or technical work, or its artistic transformation or performance, fixed on any type of medium or communicated through any medium without the authorization of the holders of the corresponding intellectual property rights or their assignees, shall be punished by one to three years' imprisonment. The same penalty shall apply to anyone who fails to submit to the Register of Commerce such works or productions or performances, or imports, exports or stores copies thereof without the said authorization. - Aggravated violation of copyright and neighbouring rights Article 227: A penalty of three to five years' imprisonment shall be applied to anyone who commits any of the acts described in Article 226 above in conjunction with any of the following circumstances: - Usurpation of the status of author of a work or part of a work, or of the name of an artist in a performance; - substantial modification of the integrity of the work without the authorization of the author; - if the quantity or value of the unlawful copy is of particular economic importance. Similarly, Title IX (Offences Relating to the Socioeconomic Order), Chapter I (Offences Relating to Industrial Property), establishes the following: - Violation of the privileges of invention Article 228: The manufacture, import, possession, offer or introduction into the market for industrial or trade purposes and without the consent of the owner of the patent or utility model of the subject-matter thereof shall be punished by one to three years' imprisonment. The same penalty shall apply to anyone who for the same purposes uses an industrial process or design that is protected by registration, without the authorization of the holder or without the necessary licence, or offers or introduces into the market or uses the product obtained directly by the registered process. - Violation of distinctive commercial signs Article 229: The reproduction, imitation, modification or use of any kind of a mark, trade name, expression, advertising sign or any other distinctive commercial sign for industrial or commercial purposes and without the consent of the holder, in violation of the rights appertaining to the industrial property registered in conformity with the law, shall be punished by one to two years' imprisonment. The same penalty shall apply to those who knowingly possess for the purposes of sale or placing on the market, products or services with distinctive commercial signs which, in accordance with the preceding paragraph, constitute an infringement of the exclusive rights of the holder. - Breach of trust Article 230: Anyone who takes possession of documents, carrier media or other items with a view to discovering or revealing an economically assessable secret belonging to an enterprise and involving economic advantages shall be punished by six-months' to two years' imprisonment. - Exposure or disclosure of an industrial secret Article 231: Anyone who, while legally or contractually bound to maintain confidentiality, exposes or discloses an invention for which a patent application has been filed, or an industrial or trade secret, shall be punished by six months' to two years' imprisonment. If the secret is used to the perpetrator's own advantage, the penalty shall be increased by up to one third of the maximum. If the perpetrator is a public official or employee and the act is perpetrated in the course of his duties, he shall, in addition, be disqualified from such duties or employment for six months to two years.]