Unión Europea
Derecho de autor y derechos conexos
2. To what extent are quantitative limitations imposed, be it in law or through the courts, on the use of literary or artistic works for teaching purposes pursuant to Articles 33 to 35 of the Copyright Law (Article 9.1 of the TRIPS Agreement in conjunction with Article 10(2) Berne Convention)?
Article 33 of the Japanese Copyright Law allows the reproduction of works in school textbooks, and Article 34 allows broadcasting or wire diffusion of works for school education and reproduction of works in textbooks for such programmes. However, these acts can be done under the strict condition: "only to the extent deemed necessary for the purpose of school education". Also, the user shall announce the use to the author in order to provide the author with a chance to exercise his/her moral rights, and shall pay compensation to the copyright owner. Article 35 allows the person who is in charge of teaching in educational institutions to reproduce a work to the extent deemed objectively necessary for the purpose of use in the course of teaching, provided that such reproduction does not unreasonably prejudice the interests of the copyright owner in the light of the nature of the work as well as the number of copies, etc. These Articles (Articles 33 to 35) have been carefully established and applied under strict interpretation so as to comply with Articles 9(2) and 10(2) of the Berne Convention and Article 13 of the TRIPS Agreement.