Report by Developed Country Members on the implementation of TRIPS Art. 66.2 (re. Technology Transfer to LDCs) - View details of the document

New Zealand
  1. This submission provides an update on New Zealand's activities for the period from July 2020, consistent with commitments made under Article 66.2 of the TRIPS Agreement. These commitments contribute to the promotion and encouragement of technology transfer to least developed countries (LDCs), with a view to enabling a sound and viable technological base.
  2. Technology transfer is interpreted in this report broadly to include training, education and 'know‑how', along with any capital component, and include four key modes of technology transfer:
    • physical objects or equipment;
    • skills and human aspects of technology management and learning;
    • designs and blueprints which constitute the document-embodied knowledge on information and technology; and
    • production arrangement linkages within which technology is operated.
  3. New Zealand encourages and appreciates the interest that LDC Members have in learning more about the value and outcomes of our technology transfer programmes. We have also included a table of specific examples of technology transfer to LDCs, in response to a request from LDCs for a more standardised format of reporting.


  1. New Zealand encourages technology transfer to LCDs through various methods, including through the promotion of an economic environment that enables New Zealand enterprises and institutions to transfer technology abroad; encouraging global trade in goods, services and labour mobility, facilitating a strong intellectual property environment and through various bilateral and regional development programmes. We also encourage LDCs to adopt the most relevant and cost-effective technology available on the global market. 
  2. Due to New Zealand's history, culture and location, the primary geographical focus of the New Zealand Aid Programme is the Pacific and key partners in Asia. The LDCs with which New Zealand has bilateral or targeted regional programmes, discussed in this report are: Solomon Islands, Vanuatu (now graduated), Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Timor-Leste, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia and Zambia (all of whom are LDC WTO Members or Observers).
  3. New Zealand's engagement with LDCs on technology transfer occurs predominantly through the New Zealand Aid Programme, managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT). We see technology transfer as fundamental to achieving sustainable development and poverty reduction in developing countries, through the investment of money, knowledge and skills. With a strong focus on the Pacific, New Zealand's Official Development Assistance (ODA) was boosted in 2018, with an additional funding commitment of NZD 714 million, increasing the overall ODA funds to NZD 2,218.73 billion for the period 2018 – 2021.
  4. This increase in funding coincided with a renewed strategic direction for New Zealand's international cooperation for effective sustainable development. Its updated purpose is to contribute to a more peaceful world, in which all people live in dignity and safety, all countries can prosper, and our shared environment is protected. New Zealand supports the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and is committed to the values we want to see prevail in the world, including human rights, good governance and democracy; gender equality and women's empowerment; sound stewardship of the environment and climate; prevention and peaceful resolution of conflict; and the importance of international cooperation.
  5. Our ODA priorities are dependent on individual country needs to support sustainable development, and can be broadly framed through the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs) pillars of:
    • People - health, education, scholarships, human rights, and inclusive development targeting women and youth, and humanitarian action;
    • Planet - climate change, renewable energy, resilience, environment, and oceans;
    • Prosperity - economic governance, information and communication technology, agriculture, trade, labour mobility and employment; and
    • Peace - effective governance, peacebuilding, security, and preventing violence.
  6. Guided by these policy settings, the Ministry will continue to deliver 60% of our overall ODA in the Pacific. New Zealand's engagement in the Pacific is driven by our strong Pacific identity and interconnectedness with the region, coupled with the direct impact the Pacific's stability and prosperity has on New Zealand's national interests. New Zealand is seeking to deepen its engagement with the Pacific and ensure our relationships with Pacific Island countries are built on understanding, friendship, mutual benefit and a collective ambition to achieve sustainable results.
  7. Beyond the Pacific, the New Zealand Aid Programme prioritises Timor-Leste and South East Asia, and takes a targeted approach to the rest of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In these regions, we focus our aid on addressing climate change, peacebuilding, effective governance, and achieving a resilient global economy.
  8. New Zealand has invested in multilateral organisations and initiatives that have supported technology transfer in the context of the global COVID-19 response. New Zealand has provided nearly NZD 70 million towards the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) to support developing countries (including LDCs) to respond to COVID-19. This includes an NZD 8 million contribution to the Global Fund's COVID-19 Response Mechanism, and a NZD 10 million investment over five years in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) to support vaccine research and development and manufacturing capability. In addition, New Zealand was an early supporter of COVAX (ACT-A's vaccines pillar) and has contributed NZD 26 million to the COVAX Advance Market Commitment Scheme, as well as NZD 6.7 million in ancillary costs (e.g. needles) associated with our donation of approximately 9.7 million vaccine doses to date.
  9. New Zealand has supported Pacific and South-East Asian countries' access to COVID-19 vaccines. New Zealand made a NZD 6.5 million contribution to an Australia - UNICEF partnership that is bulk procuring COVID-19 vaccines. While through COVAX, New Zealand donated 28,800 doses of the AstraZeneca, and 100,800 doses of the Johnson&Johnson/Jannsen vaccines to the Solomon Islands.



  1. As the New Zealand Aid Programme evolves over time, different elements of technology transfer will feature. The following are some current examples from bilateral programmes with a number of LDC WTO Member Countries.


  1. Plant and Food Research, a New Zealand Crown Research Institute, is partnering with Proximity Design, a Myanmar Social Enterprise, in a six year (2019-2025) NZD 7.9 million project to improve the productivity, incomes and resilience of smallholder vegetable farmers and reduce post-harvest losses. Proximity Design's capability in horticulture has been built through training and support in fertiliser and pesticide management and irrigation products.

Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)

  1. The NZD 11.8 million Lao PDR (90%) and Cambodia (10%) Renewable Energy Facility provided hydro dam safety training to 288 Government of Lao People's Democratic Republic staff and technical renewable energy English language training to 82 key government officials. New Zealand technical advisers supported the Government of Lao People's Democratic Republic to update the national energy efficiency roadmap and complemented this with energy efficiency training for 144 government and private sector staff.
  2. The NZD 11 million unexploded ordnance programme (UXO) Lao Activity cleared 638 hectares of contaminated land in Xieng Khouang Province in 2021 and an additional 431 hectares as of July 2022. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in 2021, the New Zealand Technical Advisor delivered one training course for 21 UXO Lao staff on the operation of new equipment. The New Zealand technical adviser provided support to the National Regulatory Authority for the UXO/Mine Action Sector in Lao People's Democratic Republic to develop national courses for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EDO), and a trauma medic course. An EDO course was conducted for all UXO Lao People's Democratic Republic provinces in June 2022.


  1. Through the NZD 6.9 million Cambodia Quality Horticulture Activity, New Zealand experts have supported the Cambodia General Directorate of Agriculture to become a fully functional Cambodia Good Agricultural Practices (CamGAP) certification body and it has effectively certified 309 farms. Four agribusiness and social enterprises project partners have also been supported to finalise their internal control systems for managing GAP-aligned production from their supplying farmers.


  1. The 7 year, NZD 7.4 million Zambia dairy activity is strengthening emerging dairy value chains through knowledge transfer on animal health and dairy business practices. Approximately 600 participating farmers have experienced improved yields, reduced costs of production and increased profits. Since the onset of COVID-19 in 2020, the programme has also been particularly adept at shifting to virtual platforms to share information and build capacity across the sector, with the programme's informational material, videos and newsletters via email and WhatsApp groups, reaching approximately 1,200 recipients.
  2. To widen impact, the programme has had a NZD 1.5million extension to the end of 2023 to focus on industry and community engagement activities. In 2022, outreach was increased to 20 dairy cooperatives with 2,194 active members, over 330 dairy farmers were introduced to ZDTP best practices at agricultural shows, and training was undertaken with 31 Extension Officers (EOs) each with a catchment area of hundreds of farmers.


  1. New Zealand provides LDCs with technology transfer and assistance to encourage investment through various regional assistance programmes. In some cases it is difficult to separate expenditure specifically provided to LDC Members, although it is clear that LDC Members within these regions benefit from these programmes.

Pacific Economic and Trade-related Activities

  1. Sound economic management and appropriate policies are critical to encourage technology transfer, trade and investment. The New Zealand Aid Programme provides funding to various regional organisations that provide economic advice, capacity-building, or support the development of trade or investment:
    • The Pacific Islands Financial Technical Assistance Centre (PFTAC) supports Pacific Island Countries to improve economic management through the provision of technical advice and practical support in public financial management, tax administration, macroeconomic management and National Accounts, and in coordinating donor efforts in these areas. New Zealand has committed NZD 12 million for the current five-year cycle of PFTAC through to April 2022;
    • The Pacific Trade & Invest (PTI) office in Auckland aims to enhance trade, investment and tourism opportunities for Pacific Island businesses. New Zealand contributes NZD 1.1 million per year to the operation of PTI;
    • In October 2021, New Zealand committed NZD 17 million to establish InvestPacific, a NZD 50 million blended finance fund to mobilise private investment in 12 Pacific Island countries, including Solomon Islands. New Zealand's commitment includes NZD 5 million for a technical assistance facility that will help build the investment pipeline for InvestPacific through pre-feasibility, investment readiness and post-transaction support. The fund is expected to formally launch in late 2023.

ICT sector

  1. New Zealand also funds a broad range of initiatives in the ICT sector across the Pacific region, aimed at improving connectivity for communities that are underserved, and enhancing digital services for citizens and businesses. Examples of these initiatives include:
    • Investment of approximately NZD 42 million into submarine cables in Polynesia, connecting a number of countries to cables for the first time to improve connectivity and reduce cost to the consumer;
    • Funding of NZD 6 million to the University of the South Pacific to upgrade its academic campus network over 14 countries in the region, to improve education and training outcomes through the provision of enhanced digital education platforms;
    • Commitment in 2019 of NZD 10 million over five-years to provide cybersecurity capacity-building support to Pacific countries, to help partners improve security of their digital technology platforms and information online; and
    • A partnership with the World Bank, beginning in 2019, to conduct an assessment of e- government digital services and the digital economy across the region with a view to providing recommendations on how to improve e-government services and the digital economy to citizens and businesses in the Pacific.

Business Development

  1. Support for small to medium enterprise (SME) development remains a key focus for New Zealand, with the NZD 12.5 million Business Link Pacific (BLP) supporting SMEs across six Pacific Island countries to access quality, local business advisory services to grow and improve their operations. During the reporting period, BLP enabled 56 Solomon Islands SMEs to access business advisory services valued at NZD 162 000, leveraging NZD 50 000 in co-investment. In March 2022, New Zealand committed an additional NZD 23.5 million for a second five-year phase of Business Link Pacific combined with the Pacific SME Finance Facility (see below) to cover twelve Pacific Island countries.
  2. In November 2020, New Zealand launched the Pacific SME Finance Facility pilot to support Pacific businesses to respond to the economic impacts of COVID-19 while investing in long-term sustainability, resilience and growth. New Zealand's NZD 10 million contribution has enabled 46 businesses in Solomon Islands to access NZD 502,000 in adaptation grants. Wholesale capital funds were also lent to a local financial institution to facilitate concessional lending to Solomon Islands businesses.


  1. MFAT fully funds Pacific Cooperation Broadcasting Ltd (PCBL), the parent company for Pasifika TV, for NZD 3 million per year. As well as providing 24/7 free content to contracted broadcasters (currently 21 broadcasters in 15 countries), PCBL also provides training in journalism, editing, and business management. The funding arrangement includes the provision of high-definition digital decoders, mojo units (filming) and laptops. These collectively provide the capability for real-time filming, editing and broadcasting on the stream through the central hub in Auckland, operated in conjunction with Māori TV, increasing the Pacific-generated content on the channel.

Pacific Regional Agency Activities

  1. New Zealand provides core financial support to the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) (NZD 10.35 million over five years 2020-2024). SPREP provides technical advice, programme support and capacity-building assistance to Pacific island countries and territories in the areas of biodiversity and ecosystem management, climate change, ocean acidification, waste management and pollution control, and environmental monitoring and governance, and accordingly promotes the transfer of knowledge into the region.
  2. New Zealand provides core support of NZD 9 million per year to The Pacific Community (SPC) which is the Pacific's leading science and technical agency, with a regional mandate across multiple sectors including agriculture, public health, education quality, coastal fisheries, energy, disaster management, human rights, gender and youth, and statistics. It promotes technology transfer into the region in these areas. The Pacific Multi-sector Response to Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) Activity, delivered by SPC, is supporting improved multisector responses to non-communicable diseases through provision of regulatory, legislative and policy technical support. In the Solomon Islands, this activity supported the development of a multisector NCD plan.
  3. New Zealand provides core support of NZD 4.6 million per year to the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) which assists Pacific countries to cooperate to manage their tuna fisheries, and to maximise the economic and social benefits of this resource. This includes building national capacity and technology transfer in the areas of fisheries management, compliance and legal frameworks.

Climate Change Programme

  1. For the period 2019-2022 New Zealand continued implementing a dedicated climate change programme supporting Pacific countries to lead their climate change response. The programme provides NZD 150 million over four years in bilateral and regional funding, including support for the Pacific Climate Change Centre, working with Australian counterparts on the Climate and Ocean Support Programme, and strengthening water security in low-lying countries.
  2. New Zealand funds a broad range of initiatives which aim to support low-emissions climate‑resilient development, improve access to science and information to support Pacific Island countries' decision-making, improve water security and strengthen ecosystems, increase access to renewable energy, and support both economic and climate resilience. Examples of these initiatives include:
    • Following piloting of the Pacific Risk Tool for Resilience in Samoa and Vanuatu, we will be working with partners in New Zealand and the Pacific to further develop the tool, which will enable PICS to model the effects of natural hazards, such as tropical cyclones and droughts, to forecast damage to people and infrastructure. This information will be used to inform short-term (e.g. disaster response) and long term (e.g. land-use) planning to reduce potential losses;
    • A suite of renewable energy initiatives across a range of Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Samoa, Niue, Tokelau and the North Pacific has seen these countries make significant progress towards achieving their ambitious renewable energy targets. New Zealand also progressed a number of renewable energy initiatives in South East Asia, East Africa and the Caribbean.
  3. New Zealand has committed to delivering at least NZD 300 million in climate-related support from 2019 to 2022, at least two thirds of which will benefit the Pacific and at least half of which will focus on adaptation. Our recent country programmes in the Pacific find that the Aid Programme's investments in renewable-energy generation and electricity distribution across the Pacific are relevant to the priorities of partner countries. The investments help New Zealand's partner countries make progress towards their renewable-energy targets; reduce their reliance on importing fuel to generate electricity, which is expensive; enhance the climate resilience of electricity systems; generate more reliable electricity in remote locations; and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (this enhances the Pacific's credibility when it advocates for action on climate change).

Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) Scheme

  1. The Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) scheme enables New Zealand employers in the horticulture and viticulture industries to recruit migrant seasonal workers, primarily from the Pacific. The purpose of the scheme is to provide New Zealand employers with a reliable source of seasonal labour and to provide Pacific workers with income and employment opportunities. While RSE workers are in New Zealand they also have the opportunity to up-skill and undertake a variety of training courses. 
  2. Since 2007, 120,000 workers have arrived in New Zealand under the scheme. Of that, 9,100 RSE workers have arrived from LDCs in the Pacific (Kiribati, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu). Workers involved in the scheme have improved their literacy, numeracy and communication skills, which also led to skills sharing between New Zealand and the Pacific.
  3. The New Zealand Aid Programme provides significant financial support to facilitate the scheme, including:
    • A training programme for RSE workers in English language, financial literacy and life skills, as well as more advanced training, for example, in basic trades, small business, nutrition and hospitality, and leadership. The programme has provided training to over 13,000 workers over ten years (2012 – 2022); and
    • Technical assistance delivered by the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment to build the capacity of Pacific governments to recruit and manage the supply of labour for New Zealand's horticulture and viticulture industries under the RSE scheme.

Africa Geothermal Facility

  1. The New Zealand – Africa Geothermal Facility (NZ-AGF) is a NZD 10.2 million partnership with the African Union Commission. Since FY 2017/18 it has provided geothermal technical assistance to support the development of the geothermal sector in East African countries. It is open to 11 eligible countries including ten LDCs: Burundi, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. In this reporting period since June 2020, three NZ-AGF technical assistance projects have supported LDC partners. Under a multi-country geothermal drilling support project, capacity-building support has reached 95 individuals across Djibouti, Tanzania and Ethiopia, helping partners plan and progress geothermal exploration drilling. A separate project under the NZ- AGF has supported two LDC partners prepare applications to the Africa Union's Geothermal Risk Mitigation Facility (GRMF), for grant funding to support geothermal exploration efforts. In this reporting period through Round 6 and 7 of the GRMF, the NZ-AGF supported submission of five applications to the GRMF, working with Tanzania (1) and Djibouti (4). Under the third NZ-AGF project, individuals from a wider range of African LDCs – including Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia - participated in a regional, online 'webinar' based training programme, which provided basic training across a range of technical geothermal disciplines.


New Zealand Scholarships

  1. New Zealand provides scholarships to citizens of targeted developing and least developed countries to undertake vocational and professional training or tertiary level study in New Zealand, the Pacific region or in South East Asia with International Development Cooperation (IDC) financing. During 2021/22, 736 Manaaki New Zealand scholars completed their tertiary or vocational studies. This was in addition to 428 students on scholarships, in tertiary institutions in New Zealand and the Pacific. New Zealand supported this through IDC funding totalling approximately NZD 35.2million. In the year before COVID-19 this funding equalled NZD 85.1m, reflecting the fact that fewer scholars were able come to New Zealand due to restricted border settings since the pandemic began.
  2. New Zealand scholarships enhance the skills, knowledge and other attributes of scholars so that they can assist in the social and economic development of their home countries. Scholarships are offered only in subjects and skills relevant to the human resource development needs and priorities of partner countries.


The Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand

  1. The Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand (IPONZ) provides on-going technical assistance on request to developing and least developed countries. New Zealand will continue to support future work, on request, to improve the intellectual property systems of developing countries.
  2. IPONZ is recognised for its efficient and effective online services, high quality examination and registration processes. As a result, IPONZ hosts delegations and study visits from developing and least developed countries to provide practical training and knowledge sharing.
  3. Recently, IPONZ's ability to assist has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions at the New Zealand border. With these restrictions easing IPONZ can offer its assistance more readily again.

The Plant Variety Rights Office (PVRO)

  1. New Zealand has been a member of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) since 1981. A key element of UPOV is cooperation between member states and the harmonisation of testing and examination activity. On an as requested basis, New Zealand supplies variety test reports to several members and utilises testing results from other states for the rights decision here. Such activity encourages on going sharing and exchange of technical experience and expertise between UPOV member states.
  2. New Zealand continues to actively participate in the Council, Consultative Committee, Administrative and Legal Committee, Technical Committee and the Technical Working Parties for Agriculture, Ornamentals and for Fruit. New Zealand is currently the chair of the Technical Working Party for Fruit Crops through to 2023. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) conducted all meetings in 2021 by virtual means.

Table of specific activities by New Zealand for the period 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2022





Practical training

December 2021

Seoul, Republic of Korea (virtual)

New Zealand Plant Variety Rights Office representative was on a panel at a seminar on the use of image analysis for DUS testing

Information sharing

24 November 2020

Geneva, Switzerland (virtual)

New Zealand representative shared information on geographical indication protection in New Zealand at an 'Information session on Geographical Indications' at the WIPO 43rd Standing Committee on Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications

Technical guidance

4 September 2020, 17 September 2020, 24 March 2021, 12 April 2022


In the capacity as Chair of the UPOV Technical Working Party for Fruit Crops, New Zealand participated in seminars providing information on variety testing to UPOV member states and the plant breeding community

Information sharing

June 10 2021

Singapore (virtual)

New Zealand presented at a seminar and shared motivations and challenges faced when joining the Budapest Treaty


AANZFTA Economic Cooperation Support Programme

  1. AANZFTA mandates a programme of technical assistance activities to assist AANZFTA parties to operationalise and implement the Agreement, particularly the 'Economic Cooperation' chapter of AANZFTA. Until June 2022 this was known as the AANZFTA Economic Cooperation Support Programme (AECSP). New Zealand has committed to continue to fund the AECSP successor programme, the AANZFTA Implementation Support (AIS) Programme, which will continue to support AANZFTA Parties to operationalise and implement the Agreement. The successor programme will enter implementation by the end of 2022. The AECSP is jointly funded by Australia and New Zealand. Between 2010 and June 2022, it had an overall budget of AUD 36.92 million. As of June 2022, 94 projects had been initiated across the eight different components of the economic cooperation work programme.
  2. Projects funded by the AECSP are available to all ten ASEAN member states, including three LDCs: Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar. The aim of AANZFTA Economic Cooperation is to facilitate AANZFTA implementation; progress built-in agenda negotiations; achieve deeper economic integration among the parties; and increase business utilisation of AANZFTA.
  3. Numerous AECSP projects promoted technology transfer, particularly the transfer of skills and human aspects of technology management and learning. Some examples of projects involving Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar include:
    • Assistance for ASEAN Member States to accede to the Madrid Protocol and implement it post-accession, facilitating trademark registration regionally and globally.
    • Projects to strengthen ASEAN Member States' institutional capacity to design and adopt a high-quality, consistent, and sustainable approach to patent examination and tailored training—through three intertwined projects: Regional Patent Examination Training (RPET), Ideal Patent Examination Training (IPET) Model, and the RPET Mentoring Programme.
    • Development of a Regional Intellectual Property Public Education and Awareness Strategy and a pool of resources (e.g., IP for Business Portal, handbook, and guide) to raise awareness of AANZFTA business communities and IP creators about strategic IP management, helping them reap the benefits of AANZFTA through innovation and applying for and using their IP rights.


The information provided is based on the reporting criteria agreed by the TRIPS Council in February 2003. Any relevant activities of multilateral agencies that New Zealand provides core funding to are not reflected in this report. All figures quoted are in New Zealand dollars.

List of programmes/projects

Click for more information
# Name of programme or project Beneficiary Members(s) Category of technology  
1 Climate Change Programme
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology; Information and communications technology; Climate change mitigation technology
2 Recognized Seasonal Employer Worker Training Programme
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology; Food and agriculture; Information and communications technology; Climate change mitigation technology
3 Strengthening Pacific Labour Mobility Partnerships: Toso Vaka o Manū
Environmentally friendly or sustainable technology; Food and agriculture; Information and communications technology
4 Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre (PFTAC)
Information and communications technology